The 19 black radicals who are still in US prison after four decades

Some African American rebels, including Mumia Abu-Jamal and members of Move, are still incarcerated for their actions during the 1970s black liberation struggle

Mumia Abu-Jamal, AKA Wesley Cook, former Black Panther


Former Pennsylvania death row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal, seen here in a 13 December 1995 prison photo, was convicted in 1982 of murdering a Philadelphia police officer. Photograph: Lisa Terry/Getty Images

Age: 64
Incarcerated since: 1981
Convicted of: Murder of Philadelphia police officer Daniel Faulkner
Sentence: Life without parole
Current prison: SCI Mahanoy, Pennsylvania

‘Intoxicating freedom, gripping fear’: Mumia Abu-Jamal on life as a Black Panther
http://www.europe-solidaire.org/ecrire/?exec=article&id_article=45782

Delbert Orr Africa, Move organisation

Delbert Africa and other members of Move, an organisation founded by John Africa, sit in front of their barricaded house in the Powelton Village section of Philadelphia. Photograph: Leif Skoogfors/Corbis via Getty Images

Age: 72
Incarcerated since: 1978
Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege
Sentence: 30 years to life
Current prison: SCI Dallas, Pennsylvania

A siege. A bomb. 48 dogs. And the black commune that would not surrender
http://www.europe-solidaire.org/ecrire/?exec=article&id_article=45766

Eddie Goodman Africa, Move organisation

Move members continue the radical group’s vigil at its west Philadelphia headquarters on 3 March 1978. Photograph: Bill Ingraham/AP

Age: 68
Incarcerated since: 1978
Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege
Sentence: 30 years to life
Current prison: SCI Mahanoy, Pennsylvania

Janet Holloway Africa, Move organisation

Janet Africa of Move talks to bystanders outside the Move headquarters in Philadelphia, on 3 August 1978. Photograph: Hires/AP

Age: 67
Incarcerated since: 1978
Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege
Sentence: 30 years to life
Current prison: SCI Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania

Janine Phillips Africa, Move organisation

Janine Africa, a member of Move, preaches to the crowd that gathers in front of their barricaded house. Photograph: Leif Skoogfors/Corbis via Getty Images

Age: 62
Incarcerated since: 1978
Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege
Sentence: 30 years to life
Current prison: SCI Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania

Jalil Muntaqim, AKA Anthony Bottom, former Black Panther, Black Liberation Army member

Jalil Muntaqim. Photograph: The Guardian

Age: 66
Incarcerated since: 1971
Convicted of: Murders of police officers Waverly Jones and Joseph Piagentini
Sentence: 25 years to life
Current prison: Sullivan Correctional Facility, New York

The Black Panthers still in prison: after 46 years, will they ever be set free?
http://www.europe-solidaire.org/ecrire/?exec=article&id_article=45778

Mutulu Shakur, associated with Black Panther party and other groups

Mutulu Shakur in the Manhattan Correction Center. Photograph: New York Daily News Archive/NY Daily News via Getty Images

Age: 67
Incarcerated since: 1986
Convicted of: Helping Black Panther Party member Assata Shakur escape from prison in 1979
Sentence: 60 years
Current prison: Federal Correctional Complex, Victorville, California

Russell ‘Maroon’ Shoatz, former Black Panther

Russell Shoatz III and Sharon Shoatz with their father Russell ‘Maroon’ Shoatz after he was released from solitary confinement into general population at SCI Graterford. Photograph: Abolitionist Law Center.

Age: 74
Incarcerated since: 1970
Convicted of: Murder of Philadelphia police sergeant Frank Von Colln
Sentence: Life without parole
Current prison: SCI Dallas, Pennsylvania

Sundiata Acoli, AKA Clark Squire, former Black Panther, Black Liberation Army member

Sundiata Acoli in February of 2013, when he was 76. Photograph: Sundiata Acoli Freedom Campaign

Age: 81
Incarcerated since: 1973
Convicted of: Murder of New Jersey state trooper Werner Foerster
Sentence: Life plus 30 years consecutively
Current prison: FCI Cumberland, Maryland

Chuck Sims Africa, Move organisation

Charles ‘Chuck’ Sims Africa. Photograph: onamove.com

Age: 59
Incarcerated since: 1978
Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege
Sentence: 30 years to life
Current prison: SCI Dallas, Pennsylvania

Michael Davis Africa, Move organisation

Michael Davis Africa Photograph: onamove.com

Age: 62
Incarcerated since: 1978
Convicted of: Third-degree murder of police officer James Ramp during Philadelphia siege
Sentence: 30 years to life
Current prison: SCI Graterford, Pennsylvania

Born in a cell: the extraordinary tale of the black liberation orphan
http://www.europe-solidaire.org/ecrire/?exec=article&id_article=45767

Joseph Bowen, former Black Liberation Army member

Joseph ‘Joe-Joe’ Bowen. Photograph: No credit

Age: 70
Incarcerated since: 1971
Convicted of: Murder of police officer, and later murder of two prison officers
Sentence: Life without parole
Current prison: SCI Coal Township, Pennsylvania

Veronza Bowers Jr, former Black Panther

Veronza Bowers Jr, convicted of murdering a US park ranger, shown in this undated family photograph. Photograph: Washington Post/Washington Post/Getty Images

Age: 72
Incarcerated since: 1973
Convicted of: Murder of US park ranger Kenneth Patrick
Sentence: Life
Current prison: Federal Correctional Complex, Butner, North Carolina

Fred ‘Muhammad’ Burton, former Black Liberation Army member

Fred ‘Muhammad’ Burton. Photograph: Handout

Age: 71
Incarcerated since: 1970
Convicted of: Murder of police officer, and later murder of two prison officers
Current prison: SCI-Somerset, Pennsylvania
Sentence: Life

Romaine ‘Chip’ Fitzgerald, former Black Panther

.Romaine ‘Chip’ Fitzgerald Photograph: No credit

Age: 69
Incarcerated since: 1969
Convicted of: Murder of security guard and attempted murder of a highway patrol officer
Sentence: Two life sentences
Current prison: California state prison, Los Angeles county 

Ruchell ‘Cinque’ Magee


Age: 79
Incarcerated since: 1963
Convicted of: Aggravated kidnapping in 1970 courthouse break-out attempt in which Judge Harold Haley was killed
Sentence: Life without parole
Current prison: California Men’s Colony, San Luis Obispo, California
• This entry was amended on 2 August 2018 to correct Ruchell ‘Cinque’ Magee’s age from 65 to 79.

Ed Poindexter, former Black Panther

Ed Poindexter. Photograph: Courtesy of Ed Poindexter

Age: 73
Incarcerated since: 1970
Convicted of: Murder of Omaha police officer Larry Minard
Sentence: Life
Current prison: Nebraska State Penitentiary, Lincoln, Nebraska

Kojo Bomani Sababu, AKA Grailing Brown, former Black Liberation Army member

Kojo Bomani Sababu, aka Grailing Brown Photograph: No Credit

Age: 65
Incarcerated since: 1975
Convicted of: Murder of drug dealer, attempted prison escape
Sentence: Life
Current prison: USP Canaan, Pennsylvania

Kamau Sadiki, AKA Freddie Hilton, former Black Panther

Kamau Sidiki aka Freddie Hilton Photograph: Handout

Age: 65
Incarcerated since: 2002
Convicted of: Murder in 1971 of Atlanta police officer James Green
Sentence: Life
Current prison: Augusta State Medical Prison, Georgia


Ed Pilkington

Click here to subscribe to our weekly newsletters in English and or French. You will receive one email every Monday containing links to all articles published in the last 7 days.