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  • August 6, 2015: Exploding the American myth of Hiroshima

    , by REBER Pat

    The worst US bombings of Japanese cities began in the spring of 1945, marked by the firebombing of Tokyo on March 9-10 that killed an estimated 120,000 Japanese. So total was the destruction of more than 60 large cities by August that Japan’s leaders had long accepted that massive amounts of (...)

  • 1944 and after: Why the Marshall Plan ?

    , by TOUSSAINT Éric

    As its initial name indicates (International Bank for reconstruction and development), the World Bank (WB) had two main objectives:
    1. bring financial support to the reconstruction of the countries that had been devastated by the Second World War;
    2. grant loans to contribute to the (...)

  • 100 years ago: World War I and Its Century

    , by RUFF Allen

    IN HIS AGE of Extremes, the great Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm marked the start of World War I in August, 1914 as the beginning of the “short twentieth century.”
    In Hobsbawm’s account, that short century ended with the reunification of Germany and the breakup of the Soviet “East Bloc” in (...)

  • Capitalism and socialism in the twentieth century

    , by ALI Tariq

    Marx once wrote that “history weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living,” and even twenty years after the Soviet Union’s collapse activists are still confronted by the legacy of Stalinism. At the same time, capitalism has failed millions of working and poor people around the world. The (...)

  • Cuba: In Hiroshima’s Shadow

    , by CHOMSKY Noam

    August 6, the anniversary of Hiroshima, should be a day of somber reflection, not only on the terrible events of that day in 1945, but also on what they revealed: that humans, in their dedicated quest to extend their capacities for destruction, had finally found a way to approach the ultimate (...)

  • Inhuman Bondage: On Slavery, Emancipation and Human Rights

    , by FONER Eric

    This past spring, television viewers in Britain were treated to a six-part series called Civilization about the rise (and possible fall, if China has its way) of the West, hosted by the historian Niall Ferguson. The series offered a highly reductive version of history, identifying “the West” (...)

  • The Enlightenment

    , by MARIK Soma

    I. What was the Enlightenment?
    Over two centuries ago, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote an essay entitled ‘Was ist Aufklarung?’ [What is the Enlightenment?]. For Kant, the Enlightenment represented an age when human consciousness was liberated from ignorance and error, culminating in a (...)